Organizational justice is another strong predictor of satisfaction and commitment. This factor refers to how fair employees perceive the organization to be regarding treatment of workers, policies, procedures, pay, work assignments, and other rewards. Organizational justice also is a factor in how psychological contracts are formed between the employer and the employee. The psychological contract is not the same as an employment contract. Instead, it refers to an unwritten understanding about what the employee brings to the job, and what the organization offers the employee in return. When employees don’t get what they expect, a psychological breach occurs, which is a significant cause of low satisfaction and commitment. For example, if an employee expects a great deal of autonomy in her job, and instead her supervisor micro-manages her work, there is likely to be a psychological breach of trust.

Manager-Employee Relationship

Weak Connection

The relationships that employees build with their managers and co-workers significantly influence satisfaction and commitment. Indeed, the manager-employee relationship is a critical one, and studies have shown that a weak connection between this dyad is a leading cause for employees to look for another job.

Manager-Employee Relationship

Positive Connection

The manager-employee relationship should be one of respect, trust, consideration, and acceptance. In addition to the manager, the level of social acceptance from co-workers and whether an employee felt valued and listened to by others predicts satisfaction and commitment.

Current societal norms in the U.S. dictate that work not always come first but should be balanced by a fulfilling personal life involving family, friends, and experiences. Therefore, employees who feel that they do not get enough time to balance out their work and non-work activities are more likely to have lower job satisfaction and organizational commitment. As a result, the nature of work schedules and work environments are changing. Organizations are addressing this issue by supporting flexible work schedules and remote work options.

How employees are treated at work, and their resulting work attitudes can predict job performance. When employees hold positive work attitudes as a result of their environment, relationships they develop, perceived fairness of their pay, company policies, interpersonal treatment, validity of their psychological contract, and the presence of policies addressing work-life balance, they are more likely to perform better, be more loyal to the organization, and are less likely to seek employment elsewhere. When job satisfaction and organizational commitment is high, organizations benefit from higher company performance.


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Cohen-Charash, Y., & Spector, P. E. (2001). The role of justice in organizations: A meta-analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 86(2), 278–321.

Judge, T. A., Thoresen, C. J., Bono, J. E., & Patton, G. T. (2001). The job satisfaction—job performance relationship: A qualitative and quantitative review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 127(3), 376–407.

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Riketta, M. (2008). The causal relation between job attitudes and performance: A meta-analysis of panel studies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(2), 472–481.

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