Business Finance

US Democracy Electoral Democracy and Social Advocacy Annotated Bibliography |


An annotated bibliography is an organizing tool that consolidates your research into one document. An effective annotated bibliography is used to compile sources into one location for quick access to your research as you go on to draft your paper.

TOPIC:(Make this about the future of Advocacy consider the following:)

Topic: Electoral democracy and social advocacy

Narrowed Topic: “Get out the Vote” advocacy campaigns and voter ignorance

Narrowed Topic: Why Get out the vote campaigns, like Tinder’s Swipe the Vote, is not good for U.S. democracy

Narrowed: How future get out the vote campaigns can do better for U.S. democracy


1.General guidelines to follow when completing this assignment are:

  • Adherence to Chicago format(See “Annotated Bibliography Basics”)
  • Organize sources in order of sub-topics, then alphabetical order according to author
  • 20 mechanically correct annotations of 150 words (20 references/ 150words each
  • Various sources (encyclopedia, documentary, newspaper, book, article, website, report etc.),

mostly focused on narrowed issues or questions of inquiry

  • Readiness to draft: internal quotes and page citations in annotation, selected for main idea

For an extensive example, see the annotated model included in Blackboard. For now note the specific guidelines:

  1. That citing includes a hanging indent, single-spacing the reference, double-spacing the paragraph, justifying the format, and indenting the first line of your paragraph.
  2. That annotating includes one to three sentences of summary. You are encouraged to quote key phrases from the source. Avoid quoting whole sentences. In three to five sentences, explain the source’s relevance or importance to your main idea.


2Short Guide:Annotations of 150 words

Having read a source, please answer the following questions in a 150 word annotation:

  1. What is the main argument of the essay and how does it relate to your working hypothesis or the main idea of your body section?
  2. What kind of audience does the essay assume? Why does it matter and for which advocates?
  3. How would you describe the quality of writing in this essay?
  4. Select one phrase, one sentence, and one concept that you should cite with

page numbers from the source. How do each of these relate to your research question?


3.Long Guide:

1. Strategize Research About Reasons Supporting your Hypothesis

For scholars writing books, annotated bibliographies are organized around primary (witness or experience-based testimonials), secondary (theory or knowledge written with the benefit of hindsight), and tertiary (inquiries similar to yours) sources. So if letters from Martin Luther King Jr. are primary, and a book on King’s writings secondary, then an encyclopedia on the civil rights movement would be tertiary if you’re studying the impact that King had on advocacy.

However the above can be overwhelming because it’s not yet shaped around each of your main ideas. Instead of researching your topic in total, strategize your research around the reasons (see step five in topic paper assignment) in support of the working hypothesis. This helps you to prioritize the amount, quality and breadth of your research.

2. Conceive Research as a Movement from General to Specific

Begin with the general layout of your topic based on what you think you and your reader should know on the nature of your topic. Revise your topic management grid accordingly (see step two of topic paper assignment). First, refer to two-three general sources, usually reference guides, documentaries, and the first chapters of books to contextualize your topic. Then, from the bibliographies there, take note of two- three secondary sources like more specific books, journals; recent overview articles from the New York Times or Washington Post. Third, move on to scholarly inquiries that are arguably similar to your own, and individual testimonials through online posts, archival sources and interviews. This process will revise the reasons in support of your working hypothesis.

3. Evaluate your Sources

All sources cited should be considered reliable and/or trustworthy but credibility also comes from your capacity to cover the spread on a specific inquiry. You can’t talk about minimum wage advocacy if you don’t, for example, cover the human rights angle as well as its economic effects. Or if you’re talking about the rhetoric of minimum wage, you have to cover the keynote debates on the issue. At the same time, your contribution to a community of writers has to do with bringing the topic to new light; meaning, what doesn’t the current spread cover?

4. Revise your citations

See Chapter 14 of the Chicago Manual of Style available to you in full online through Northeastern’s library system. Also see the Quick Chicago Guide included in Blackboard.



Battle, Ken. “Child Poverty: The Evolution and Impact of Child Benefits.” InA Question of

Commitment: Children’s Rights in Canada, edited by Katherine Covell and Howe, R. Brian,

21-44. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2007.

Ken Battle draws on a close study of government documents, as well as his own research as an extensively-published policy analyst, to explain Canadian child benefit programs. He outlines some fundamental assumptions supporting the belief that all society members should contribute to the upbringing of children. His comparison of child poverty rates in a number of countries is a useful wake-up to anyone assuming Canadian society is doing a good job of protecting children. Battle pays particular attention to the National Child Benefit (NCB), arguing that it did “not deserve to be criticized by politicians and journalists”. He outlines the NCB’s development, costs, and benefits, and laments that the Conservative government scaled it back in favour of the inferior Universal Child Care Benefit (UCCB). However, he relies too heavily on his own work; he is the sole or primary author of almost half the sources in his bibliography. He could make this work stronger by drawing from others’ perspectives and analyses. However, Battle does offer a valuable source for this essay, because the chapter provides a concise overview of government-funded assistance currently available to parents. This offers context for analyzing the scope and financial reality of child poverty in Canada.

(More examples are attached)


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